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MMMIUM 'i'ii'li''""""""llllllllllllllllllllJlllllllllliHI''.l!l"'.'''Pmilll I I'l 'i I' ii'l IIMIIllllllllllllllllMWMIMt 

Huntington Free Library 

Native American 


^1924 104 081 215 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

€arlp iWapjS of tlje 
Connecticut VMtv 
in iKasigacfjusiettg 

Wright & DeForest 
Springfield, Massachusetts 


This volume was issued in the month of July, 
Nineteen Hundred and Eleven, and is one of 
Two Hundred Copies, of which this copy is 



1636 — A Modern Map of Indian Localities and Trails About 

Springfield ...... 1 

1642— Woodward & Saffrey's "Bay Path" Map ... 2 

1650 — Vonder Donck's Map of the Connecticut Valley . 3 

1803 — The Agawam River in West Springfield . . 4 

1795 — Springfield, including Chicopee .... 5 

1795 — West Springfield, including Holyoke and Agawam . . 6 

1794— Greenfield 7 

1794 — -Northampton ... ... 8 

1794— Deerfield ... ... 9 

1827— Holyoke 10 

1827 — Springfield, including Chicopee .... 11 



Indian Trails About Springfield 


All early accounts indicate that from a period long prior 
to the coming of the Whites, the Indians were familair with 
places often hundreds of miles distant, one from the other, 
and that they traveled over the same route in coming and 
going. The constant passing over the same path, year after 
year, and generation after generation, often so packed the soil 
that the paths are still traceable by the depressions in the 
soil, or by the absence or a difference in the vegetation. Many 
of them have been obliterated by roads and railways of modern 
limes. Owing to the Indians' habit of marching in single file 
the trails rarely exceed 18 inches in width, yet these were the 
ordinary roads of the country. They always followed the line 
of the least natural resistance. Many of them were originally 
tracks made by the deer in their seasonal migrations between 
feeding grounds; some of them remain worn two feet deep into 
the ground. 

Some of these trails were located by documentary evidence. 
Sometimes an old deed or a grant of land gives a clue, being 
located on a trail or being bounded by a trail. In 1660, land 
was granted that "lyes by the path to Moheage." The records 
of 1646 speak of "the playne in the Bay Path." 

The first trail east of the river is the present Main street; the 
next eas-t is Maple, Chestnut and Springfield street to Chicopee, 
where it crossed the Chicopee river "above the island where the 
Indian's common wading place is," as the early record reads. 

On the right from the Indian Fort is the trail which is now 
Mill, Pine, Walnut, Oak and St. James avenue to Chicopee 
Falls. The trail crossed the Chicopee river, at the low water 
below the Falls at Scanunganuck, now Chicopee Falls. The 
Bay Path came into this trail from Boston, followed it to the 
Fort and continued across the Connecticut river, then on to 
Westfield, Great Harrington, Albany and Buffalo. 

It crossed the Connecticut river just below the South End 
bridge. Before the Agawam was changed, there was a sand bar 
at that point so that it was possible to walk across the river 
at low water. Changes in the current have since washed the 
bar away. 

The trail going south, west of the river, went to Windsor, 
where there were large tribes. The most southeasterly one 
went to the Pequots and the Mohegans, and was known to 
Pynchon as the "Pequit path that goes to Moheag." 

A dcscrrprion of ihe cxfcnh of The bounds of f^&sa&chuscrrs Baif Pafenr sourhward li^jng m 
4tdeg 55 minute Latr ; crossing Conechcorr river ac Windsor ferq pla.ce. The house of John Bt5 
-sell beings on rhe west 5ide B.nd rh*- Widow Grbb^ hir house on rhc e^L«^ Side of The ri^/er . 

/\lSo A dcscripCion of th* -niosr reinarH&bU riveKS, brooks, ponds, hills, pUijns, sw/amps. siru&tion 
of IndiAns discoverd b^ rtie H^aift wirh Lftrr of Spring'ffeld. 4Z aeg Gmmurts >.nd the vr&dmg 
hows* of Oronoco The W" of 4« -4" mo"^ IC4Z. 

The iriiles &r« as 60 is to ^9'/m in proporhon ro fhe ordenarif cti&i^ne mites c»nlAintng 3'?0 
rods or 6 furlong^B 

Bif Kath Woodm^rd 

Solomon SAfferij 

Ch&rles river 
J**,!! ot Ch^.r^^9 River 

Wathugef h<il 


I w«H 



,., 1''" iVUn t*tf««'p«wki«if 

'G«*d sivktnp *' 

tipnaf I 



HighHills ••"I"' 


Oronoco — .^^^^tSi*^''" ' 

Th« Fills 


High hills 



Greftf pond 

The Sou^hermosr p&rAllet tine of the n&ss&chuseHa Ba^ Iw'n^ 'n 
Lilt 41 degrees 55 mmures Norrh LmI 

Thff riwcr. comaf avr af the pond 

The pond J''. (t\ A hill <?!«'? 

J miles: 

A hill 

A pon^c 






Lftndin^ puce 


'-^QTefct River 


. Conccricur Rlv«r 

fl b»d holt '' •■t) ■.. 



Ttvt p&rh.-from 'B*n m Provic/tnee 

ft wigwim PRoi/iDtNceV\ aekconk olkin- 
^ -J^i "^ 




4/ J' 


The Roads from Boston to Connecticut River in 1642 

This represents the country along the old Bay Path, and has 
great historical interest from the fact that out of its making 
grew the long dispute with Connecticut over the boundary. 

The "4 Wigwams" at about the center of the southern trail, 
stood on the site of what is now Woodstock. "Monoways 
river" was the Quinebaug. North of Springfield are the "High 
Hills" of the Holyoke range. The "liigh Hills" to the east 
are the Wilbraham mountains. The wigwam with the two 
ponds nearby is the site of Brookfield. Woodward and Saffery 
probably saw from there Watchusett mountain and the Indians 
told them the name, which is on the map as "Wathuget hill." 
Nipant river is the Blackstone. East of there the trail led 
across the Charles river into Boston. 

Oronoco is Westfield. The "Fery Place," on the Connecticut 
river, was known as "Bissell's Ferry," down to modern times. 






Dutch Map of the Connecticut 

The original is a colored copper plate engraving, measuring 
18 X 21 inches in size, and is extremely valuable. It is known 
as Van Der Donck's and was drawn by N. Visscher, who took 
it from the map of Jasper Danker, published about 16S0. It 
gets its name from the fact that it was used by Van Der Donck in 
his book, "Description of New Netherlands," published in 1656. 
The place on Westfield river is "Pynchon's trading house," 
later Westfield. "Mr. Pinsers Cleyne Val" is "Mr. Pynchon's 
little falls." Versche Rievier is Fresh River. To the south 
are Pacquanack, Voynser (Windsor,) Herford, (Hartford,) 
Watertuyn (Watertown,) Wethersfield, Hoeren Eylant (Heron 
Island.) The various animals scattered here and there repre- 
sent the supposed habitat of these beasts. 




Agawam River, 1803 

This map of the Agawam river was filed with a petition 
to the general court, by Jonathan Dwight and others, asking 
that the bed of the river be changed. No disposition was 
made of the matter by the legislature, beyond the issuance 
of an order of notice. In 1814, another petition for the same 
change was presented, but the petitioners were given leave 
to withdraw. 

The actual straightening of the course of the river was pro- 
vided for by Chapter 59, Acts of 1820, approved February 13, 

Apparently, the upper mouth was cut through at the place 
marked, "21 rods from bank to bank." This made the large 
island; then a short cut was made across the neck, which made 
the small island. 

The first toll bridge is supposed to have been built in 1805, 
but it is shown on this map of 1803. 

The first church shown is the building prior to the one now 
standing. It stood back from Main street, as shown, allowing 
for the future Court Square. 

Ferry lane was the road to the ferry and is now Cypress 
street. The road to the bridge is now Bridge street. 

The petitioners desired the bed of the river changed, so that 
there would be more land which could be cultivated. The 
map had the following note: "The survey was taken on the 
northerly side of the river, and from its mouth to A, opposite 
the end of the prick line, it measured two miles and 102 rods. 
Where the edge of the figure is marked with a full stroke, it 
signifies a high bank. Perhaps the prick line from B to C, 
on the creek a little south of said line, will be the most eligible 
place to turn the river, where the line measures 176 rods." 
One of the remonstrants stated that it was "not practicable 
to turn the river from its present bed so as to give it a straight 
course through the east side of the middle meadow pond, as 
the river does not, for a considerable distance up the stream, 
run in a direction leading to this pond." This establishes the 
location of the elusive, but locally famous, "Middle Meadow." 


Changes in the Agawam Delta 

On July IS, 1836, William Pynchon bought of the Indians 
"all that ground and muckeosquittaj, or meadows, viz, on the 
other side of Quana, and all the ground and muckeosquittaj 
on the side of Agaam, except cottonackeesh, or ground that is 
now planted." 

John Holyoke made the following note when he recorded 
the deed in 1679. "Agaam or Agawam. It is that meadow 
on the south of Agaam river, where ye English did first build 
a house, which ye Indians do cal Agawam, and that now we 
commonly cal ye house meadow. That piece of ground it is 
which ye Indians do cal Agawam, and that the English kept 
the residence who first came to plant and settle at Springfield, 
now so called; and at the place was, :is is supposed, that this 
purchase was made of the Indians." 



J^CT^f meadow &a^ U'JVortk //^« 'Ji^ 

Springfield in 1794 

The location of the United States small-arms manufactory 
is designated by the "arsenal." together with the "magazine," 
at what later became Magazine Street. The jail was then on 
Main Street. Mill River had not been dammed, and Water- 
shops pond did not exist. Two "Goose Ponds" are shown, 
which have entirely disappeared. But two streets run west 
from M.iin — Elm and Cypress Streets. The Mill River valley 
was quite a manufacturing center, with a paper mill, a fulling 
mill, various saw mills and grist mills. A duck factory was on 
the north side of the "Road to the Upper Ferry." now Cypress 
Street. The "Meeting House" is the one shown on the map of 
the Acawam River. 





This shows the North meeting house, later 
Ireland parish, and now the Northampton 
Street section of Holyoke. The church was 
originally the property of the Second Baptist 
church of West Springfield. It was built in 
1792, about one-half mile south of the present 
church, but there was not sufficient money 
to finish the inside. After a few years, the 
Congregationalists joined in moving the build- 
ing north and completing it. It was com- 
pleted in 1811 and occupied until 1826. 

The Great Falls, where the saw mill and 
the corn mill are, is the site of the Holyoke 
dam. The road to Hanover and Dartmouth 
college is now the road to Northampton. 
The Iron works are just below Ashley ponds, 
in the valley of Bear Hole brook. Dr. Lath- 
rop's meeting house is the site of the church 
on the Common in West Springfield, and was 
built in 1703. 

The South meeting house was that of the 
First Congregational society of Agawam. It 
was built in 1760, but was never completely 
finished. In 1779, it was taken down and 
moved to Feeding Hills and re-erected, where 
it remained incomplete until 1821, when it 
was finished. 

The saw mill and corn mill, just north of 
the island in the Agawam river, are where 
the Ramapogue Ice Company is now located. 
On February 21, 1649, there was "granted 
Deacon Samuel Chapin (of St. Gaudensfame) 
a parcel of land by Agawam Falls." This 
is what is known as the "Original Mill 
Grant," and has been used for manufactur- 
ing ever since. * 

The two smaller islands in the Agawam 
river are at Mittineague. 

The road from Hartford to Pittsfield is 
at Feeding Hills, and the ranges of hills to 
the west are Provin mountain, the Bear Hole 
range, Mount Tom, etc. 

The corn mill, next above Dr. Lathrop's 
meeting house, is by Holy Smoke spring on 
the Holyoke road. 

The saw mill, north of the two small 
islands in the Agawam, is on the brook about 
half way between Mittineague and Tatham. 

West Springfield in 1795 

. r 'Worttjte.r' U1- 

^ J Shirt Town 32. mUts.^.v'^ 



r*!)^'' f-y'c^/'^c^^t/ ^'^^f^^ 






Connectitu.t7f.fnm Jftc J2a C/iaim 
FallR. 60 liitki. 

3 Corn- Afilli \ 

to, JBrtdglS 


ThU PLAN ts !ciid doujn 


Greenfield in 1794 

This map was made by David Hoit, Jr., of Deerfield. 

Tlie Meeting House was at "Trap Plain," and the road is 
now known as Silver Street. It was opposite the house in latter 
days occupied by Lemuel A. Long. It was built in 1766, though 
not completed until 1773. 

The present Main Street was laid out in 1749. 

The road from the west end of Main Street to the Country 
Farms was laid out in 1736. 

The road from the church to the proprietors' road (Silver 
Street) was laid out in 1760. 

The road from the church to the Bernardston line was 
laid out in 1763. 

The road from the street to the church (now Federal Street) 
was laid out in 1788. 

The "fourteen foot fall" was at Turner's Falls. 

The first dam at Turner's Falls was built by Capt. Elisha 
Mack in 1793. It was originally attempted at a point two 
miles below the falls at Smead's Island, but prtw'ed impractic- 
able on account of the depth of water and was abandoned after 
considerable labor and expense. 

Twenty-five houses are shown in the town plot. 


o^-^^ ^^uJ& 




Northampton in 1794 

Tlie church shown is the third building of the First Church. 
It was built in 1736 and pulled down in 1813. The church, 
court house and school house were in a line. The court house 
was built of the materials taken from the second church and 
was occupied until 1813. 

Porneroy's Inn was built by Asahel Pomeroy in 1794. It 
was later known as the Warner House and here Lafayette 
stopped in 182S. Edward's Inn was in 1S27 known as Moody's 

"l^n Vfrn. 

Stndd.Trd's Island is now known as Shepherd's "Island. The 

Island were just 

changes in the river which formed Elwell's 
beginning when this map was made. 

Clark's Ferry is the site of the first bridge, built in 1808 
The Canal Dam on the Connecticut was the dam built for 
power at South Hadley Falls. 

At the "Mineral Mountains'' was the lead mine discovered 
by Robert Lyman in 1679. The "Mineral Company" was 
formed that >ear, the town relinquishing "all their right in 
that mine lying about six miles off, at the west side of the town." 
Other companies ha\o worked these hills at \ arious times since. 

m%im^ OF mimm 







•y Ctnwt,j 

BrvoA field jo^ Miifs. <* ^ 

RffiMtU diftameU eAtSAire Touin JtMihs. 

lia.nd ri>i/(ftdlu Water, ^ ertimo-tion. 441^ oc^«, 

Deerfield in 1794 


This map was made by David Hoit, Jr., of Deertield. 

The mill near the canal was at the South Meadow. In 
recognition of the public spirit of Colonel Joseph Stebbins, 
and his brother, Asa Stebbins, in building a grist mill at this 
point, the town agreed that it should be forever free from tax. 
The mill was burned in 1838, but was rebuilt at once, and was 
finally destroyed by floods. Around the water power developed 
by the Stebbins brothers, .Mill \'lllaec prow up. 

Xearby was the ferry of Church Moiidoll. who .-iol^ to Stebbins 
■ of tlic land needed for the dam. 

Israel Russell of Sunderland owned the ferry that in modern 
times was known as \\"hittemoro"s ferry. 

Cobb's Ferry was owned b\ Jonathan Cobb. It was later 
known as Rice's Ferry to Montague. 

The ferry of Benjamin Swan was at the point where the 
railroad now crosses the river at Cheapside. 

Harris Ferry is at the point where the bridge to Sunderland 
now crosses the Connecticut. 

The church shown in the town plot was built in 172'). It 
wa.< the third building of the church, and was used until 1S24. 



'^^« Iff. UMJ^ PTON 

Ireland Parish, now Holyoke, in 1827 

The Xorthampton Street district was still the important 
section of the town. The dam had not yet been built, although 
there was a cotton factory at the falls. The "Iron Works" 
of 1794, below Ashley ponds, had given way to a cement factory. 
Southampton had established its claim to the northwest corner, 
which was in doubt in 1794. Seven schools, two churches 
and one inn are in evidence. 






Springfield in 1827 

The Agawam river still had but one outlet 
into the Connecticut, and Bondi's Island was 
not yet cut away from the mainland. Mill river 
had been dammed; the Upper, Middle and Lower 
Watershops were in operation. The town brook 
still ran along by Main street, and one Goose 
pond has ceased to exist. Water street had 
been opened from Bridge to Court and Ferry 
L.ine had become Ferrv Street.